The Red Bull Ring track record of 1:04.251 set a year ago by Bottas in the final round of qualifying remained intact.
Red Bull driver Max Verstappen took the chequered flag at the team's home race ahead of Kimi Raikkonen and Vettel.
Mercedes lost the lead in both the Formula 1 constructors' and drivers' championships with a shocking double retirement at the Austrian Grand Prix - the team's first double retirement for mechanical reasons since the Italian Grand Prix in 1955. In Australia it admitted making an error after a software issue meant it underestimated the chances of Sebastian Vettel overtaking Hamilton while pitting under a Virtual Safety Car, while it failed to mirror Red Bull's winning strategy at the Chinese Grand Prix when a Safety Car was deployed with Bottas and Hamilton running first and third.
Vettel now has 146 points to Hamilton's 145 after nine rounds and with the Briton's home race at Silverstone next weekend.
Esteban Ocon ended up 11th after his final Q2 lap fell nearly two tenths of a second short of beating Hulkenberg, who improved by enough on his second run to jump ahead of the Force India.
When Bottas went out on lap 14 after losing hydraulic pressure, Red Bull and Ferrari were quick to take advantage of the reduced pace on the track during the virtual safety vehicle period and got all their cars to the box for a tire swap.
"It was unbelievable to win at the Red Bull Ring with so many Dutch fans here".
He subsequently pitted and rejoined in fourth, then had to stop again when his rear tyres blistered. "It was damage limitation for me and a positive day". "Ultimately we were the quickest and we should have won". I don't think it's going to do much if I'm really honest. "I am not going to be able to pass these guys".
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Pique headed a chance into Akinfeev's arms with the last action of the first half of extra time. They had, however, out-passed the home side 845 to 224.
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He added: "We want to accomplish the impossible". "We knew that Sweden were leading but we didn't have enough to get a goal". And as fans woke up to a World Cup without the holders this morning, the mockery online continued.
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Pusha T explained: "Allegedly his new line on Adidas is called Adidon, which is named after Adonis , his son ". We also hear a snippet of Nicki Minaj from what sounds like a 2014 live performance on "That's How You Feel".
"We have thrown away the win", said Hamilton, with Vowles replying: "This is James, I have thrown away the win today", before the retirement made it immaterial.
While both Red Bulls and Ferraris went to their boxes to have their tires changed, Mercedes surprisingly let Hamilton driving on. I was left with nowhere to go and lost the momentum.
On lap 53, he pitted again for super-softs, dropping a place to fifth behind Ricciardo, who nearly immediately slowed and stopped.
A loss of fuel pressure then forced Hamilton to retire, creating Mercedes' first double-DNF since 2016 as Bottas had earlier exited the race with a hydraulic problem. Kimi Raikkonen (FIN/Ferrari) at 1.504sec, 3. Kevin Magnussen (DEN/Haas-Ferrari) one lap, 6. Sergio Perez (MEX/Force India-Mercedes) one lap, 8.
Montreal's Lance Stroll finished 13th.
McLaren's Fernando Alonso qualified 14th, but will start 13th as a result of Leclerc's penalty.
On his final lap, Bottas shaded Hamilton in the first and third sector, with Hamilton only two thousandths faster in the middle sector - adding up to pole position by 19 thousandths of a second. Stoffel Vandoorne (BEL/McLaren-Renault) three laps. Sergey Sirotkin (RUS/Williams-Mercedes) two laps, 14.