Government supporters have been pushing Mr Maduro to order arrests in the aftermath of the failed uprising, which is the closest the opposition has ever come to ousting the president.
The Supreme Court had earlier accused those lawmakers of conspiracy, rebellion and treason, and accused another three opposition legislators of the same crimes on Wednesday.
On Wednesday Maduro warned of a possible "military escalation" with neighboring Colombia - which recognizes Guaido as interim president - after Bogota accused Caracas of sheltering leftist guerrillas on its territory.
Back in February, Bogota made a decision to partially shut the country's northeastern border with Venezuela after efforts by the Venezuelan opposition allowing trucks with unauthorized humanitarian aid into the country, led to clashes between Venezuelan security officers and pro-aid protesters.
"The arbitrary detention of First VP Edgar Zambrano by Maduro's oppressive security forces in Venezuela is illegal and inexcusable", tweeted Kimberly Breier, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs at the State Department.
Washington said: "If he is not released immediately, there will be consequences".
Tensions escalated when Guaido, who heads Venezuela's National Assembly, declared himself acting president on January 23, a move which was supported by the USA and many European and Latin American countries. Tensions escalated further after the assassination attempt on Maduro in August 2018.
Mr Guaido said in a speech after the first indictments on Tuesday that the government's "only response.is to persecute, because they no longer govern, because they no longer have command".
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National Assembly Vice President Edgar Zambrano was leaving his Democratic Action party's headquarters when he was surprised by a commando unit from the feared SEBIN intelligence agency who surrounded his vehicle.
It was not yet clear if Mr Zambrano was already at the Helicoide.
Maduro has overseen the collapse of Venezuela's economy, which has shrunk by half over the past five years, forcing more than 3million Venezuelans to emigrate.
Soon after the announcement, the Constituent Assembly - which effectively acts as a regime rubber stamp - stripped the seven of their parliamentary immunity.
"Investigations have succeeded in proving that General Manuel Ricardo Cristopher Figuera has been recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency for more than a year", Maduro said, adding that justice would be served on the "traitor" Figuera "sooner rather than later".
Maduro has appeared to let Guaido wage a campaign against him following US warnings that there would be severe repercussions if he took action against his foe.
Mr Pence and other Trump administration officials blame Mr Maduro's socialist policies and government mismanagement for Venezuela's economic crunch, warning that 2 million more people are expected to flee by the end of the year if the crisis continues.
"Edgar Zambrano has been detained".